[Syrphidae] temperature thresholds

Francis Gilbert Francis.Gilbert at nottingham.ac.uk
Tue Jul 6 21:38:13 BST 2010

hi Pierre


Nice to hear from you. And it's great that you are rearing hoverflies.


I am not sure what you mean by 'raise' because there are two ways. By far the easiest is to get eggs from field-collected females, or larvae from the field, and rear them through to adults. 


A completely different matter is to get reared adults to mate in captivity and then to get a second generation from eggs. Thus many genera are 'difficult' because adults do not mate in captivity, or at least never have when it has been tried. 


Some species are 'difficult' because the larva has an obligate diapause which must be undergone or broken in order for pupation to take place. Gradually these species have mostly been reared because techniques for keeping the larvae over the winter are reasonably good now. 


The only equipment for rearing larvae are small dishes and (for predators) available aphids. For getting adults to mate in captivity you need cages of a reasonable size (say, 60 x 60 x 60 cms) and adequate lighting.


Have you got Graham Rotheray's book on hoverfly larvae? That will give you most if not all of the information you need to rear larvae through to the adults. There is no clear guide to rearing several generations of syrphids, especially non-aphidophagous species, but I can send you some papers if you would like.







Dr Francis Gilbert

website: www.nottingham.ac.uk/~plzfg

BioMAP: www.biomapegypt.org



From: syrphidae-bounces at lists.nottingham.ac.uk [mailto:syrphidae-bounces at lists.nottingham.ac.uk] On Behalf Of Pierre MILLE
Sent: 06 July 2010 17:05
To: Hoverfly discussion list
Subject: Re : [Syrphidae] temperature thresholds


Hello Francis,


I'll probably look a bit stupid but I find that it is possible to raise hoverflies. I am a modest beginning in the study of this group. I have some questions 1) what is the genus are more difficult than others to raise and is what some are impossible to raise ? 


2) What equipment do I need ? 


Best wishes 





Pierre MILLE 

3 avenue des buttes blanches

95220 Herblay - France




--- En date de : Lun 5.7.10, Francis Gilbert <Francis.Gilbert at nottingham.ac.uk> a écrit :

De: Francis Gilbert <Francis.Gilbert at nottingham.ac.uk>
Objet: [Syrphidae] temperature thresholds
À: "Hoverfly discussion list" <syrphidae at lists.nottingham.ac.uk>, mike.bowie at lincoln.ac.nz
Date: Lundi 5 juillet 2010, 21h55

Hi Mike

Here are the studies of the temperature effects on development that I know of. They include some that estimate the developmental threshold. Let me know if you need pdfs of any of them:

Heal JR (1989a) Variation and seasonal changes in hoverfly species: interactions between temperature, age and genotype. Biol J Linn Soc 36: 251-269

Kendall DA (1985) Rearing and use of <Eristalis>. unpublished ms

Ottenheim MM (1997) The evolution and function of phenotypic plasticity of <Eristalis> hoverflies. PhD Thesis, University of Leiden, the Netherlands

Collier RH & Finch S (1992) The effects of temperature on development of the large narcissus fly (<Merodon equestris>). Ann Appl Biol 120(3): 383-390

Zabirov ShM (1963) [ On the ecology of the onion-bulb fly, <Eumerus strigatus> Fall. (Diptera, Syrphidae) ]. K ekologii lykovoi zhurchalki <Eumerus strigatus> Fall. (Diptera, Syrphidae). Ent Obozr 42: 736-743

Deeb MA El (1976) Ecological and biological studies on <Eumerus amoenus> Loew and its control. MSc Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Egypt

Gendy RH (1978) Biological studies on certain onion flies and their control. MSc Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Ein-Shams Univ, Egypt


Dusek J & Laska P (1974b) Influence of temperature during pupal development on the colour of syrphid adults (Syrphidae, Diptera). Folia Fac Sci Nat Univ Purkynianae Brunensis, Biol. 15: 77-81

Karelin VD & Bradovskaya NP (1974) [ Effects of permanent temperature and humidity on the development of the preimaginal stages of <Scaeva (Lasiophthicus) pyrastri> L. (Diptera - Syrphidae) ]. Vliyaniye postoyannoi temperaturui i vlazhnosti na razvitiyepreimaginalnuikh stadii <Scaeva (Lasiophthicus) pyrastri> L. (Diptera - Syrphidae). pp 31-34 in Entomophags, phytophags and microorganisms in plant protection. AA Kuzin (ed), Stiinca, Kishinev. 88 pp

Rabbinge R, Ankersmit GW & Pak GA (1979) Epidemiology and simulation of population development of <Sitobion avenae> in winter wheat. Neth J Plant Path 85: 197-220

Adams THL, Chambers RJ & Dixon AFG (1987) Quantification of the impact of hoverflies on cereal aphids in winter wheat - laboratory rates of kill. Ent Exp & Appl 43: 153-157

Chambers RJ (1986) Preliminary experiments on the potential of hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) for the control of aphids under glass. Entomophaga 31: 197-204

Ankersmit GW, Dijkman H, Keuning NJ, Mertens H, Sins A & Tacoma H (1986) <Episyrphus balteatus> as a predator of the aphid <Sitobion avenae> on winter wheat. Ent Exp & Appl 42: 271-277

Saidov AKh (1974) [ The effect of various factors on the growth and development of syrphid larvae ]. Vliyaniye razlichnuikh faktorov na rost i razvitiye lichinok sirfid. Uzbekskii Biol Zh 1974(1): 47-49

Tenhumberg B & Poehling H-M (1992a) [ Laboratory studies on estimating the potential predatory efficiency of <Episyrphus balteatus> (Diptera: Syrphidae) ]. Laboruntersuchungen zur Abschätzung der potentiellen Prädationsleistung von <Episyrphus balteatus> (Diptera: Syrphidae). Mitt Biol Bund Land- Forstw, Berlin-Dahlem 283-373    

Soleyman-Nezhadiyan E & Laughlin R (1998) Voracity of larvae, rate of development in eggs, larvae and pupae, and flight seasons of adults of the hoverflies <Melangyna viridiceps> Macquart and <Simosyrphus grandicornis> Macquart (Diptera: Syrphidae). Austr J Ent 37(3): 243-248

Geusen-Pfister H (1987) [ Studies on the biology and reproductive capacity of <Episyrphus balteatus> Deg. (Diptera: Syrphidae) under greenhouse conditions ]. Untersuchungen zur Biologie und zum Reproduktionsvermögen von <Episyrphus balteatus> Deg. (Dipt., Syrphidae) unter Gewächshausbedingungen. J Appl Ent 104: 261-270

Medvey M (1988) On the rearing of <Episyrphus balteatus> (DeG) (Diptera: Syrphidae) in the laboratory. pp 61-63 in Ecology and effectiveness of aphidophaga E Niemczyk & AFG Dixon (eds), SPB Academia Publishing, the Hague, Netherlands

He Jilong, Sun Xingquan, Gui Longme & Ye Wenjuan (1990) [ A preliminary study of the bionomics of a flower fly, <Eupeodes corollae> (Fabricius) (Diptera, Syrphidae) in Shanghai ]. J Shanghai Agric College 8: 221-228

He Jilong, Sun X, Ye W, Shen L, Cai Y & Li Z (1992) [ Preliminary studies on the bionomics of <Episyrphus balteatus> (De Geer) (Diptera: Syrphidae) in Shanghai ]. J Shanghai Agric College 10(1): 35-43

Hart AJ, Bale JS & Fenlon JS (1997) Developmental threshold, day-degree requirements and voltinism of the aphid predator <Episyrphus balteatus> (Diptera: Syrphidae). Ann Appl Biol 130(3): 427-437

Best wishes


Dr Francis Gilbert
website: www.nottingham.ac.uk/~plzfg
BioMAP: www.biomapegypt.org

-----Original Message-----
From: syrphidae-bounces at lists.nottingham.ac.uk <http://fr.mc275.mail.yahoo.com/mc/compose?to=syrphidae-bounces@lists.nottingham.ac.uk>  [mailto:syrphidae-bounces at lists.nottingham.ac.uk <http://fr.mc275.mail.yahoo.com/mc/compose?to=syrphidae-bounces@lists.nottingham.ac.uk> ] On Behalf Of Francis Gilbert
Sent: 02 July 2010 09:24
To: Hoverfly discussion list
Subject: [Syrphidae] from Mike Bowie

Hi Folks
can anybody help with temperature threshold info for syphids to allow
day-degrees to be to used to model development time of Eristalis,
Melanostoma and Melangyna species?
Your help would be much appreciated.

Mike Bowie
Senior Technical Officer in Ecology

Burns B516
P O Box 84
Lincoln University 7647
Christchurch, New Zealand

p +64 3 3218388 | f +64 3 3253844
e mike.bowie at lincoln.ac.nz <http://fr.mc275.mail.yahoo.com/mc/compose?to=mike.bowie@lincoln.ac.nz>  | w www.lincoln.ac.nz

Lincoln University, Te Whare Wanaka o Aoraki
New Zealand's Specialist Land Based University

Dr Francis Gilbert
(+44)(0)115 951 3215
BioMAP: www.biomapegypt.org

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